Command Description ------- ----------- ls Display files located in the current directory. ls *string* List those files that contain a particular "search-string". ls -a List all files including hidden files that begin with a "." (dot). ls -s List the size of all files. ls -F Identify the file type of all files, placing a "/" after directories. ls -la Provide a long listing of information about all files. ls -asR List all files, including "." files, and their size in a recursive listing through all subdirectories.
Use the ls command to display the files located in the current directory. world% ls To display only those files whose names contain a particular search string, use ls with wildcards (*), where "search-string" is replaced with a string of characters: world% ls *search-string* To display all files in a directory, both visible and invisible, use the -a option. Files that are preceded by a period are normally invisible, meaning they are not normally displayed when using ls. These files are often called dot files and are initialization files for the various programs. world% ls -a .login .cshrc .newsrc .mailrc schedule.txt program.c mailbox Use the -s option to list the file size of all the files in the current directory. world% ls -s 1 activists.dir 2 chinese.food.brookline 12 emacs-command-summary 1 fun.internet.dir 27 Internet.books.list Use the -F option to list the file type of all the files in the current directory. Filenames followed by a "/" indicate directories. world% ls -F ACT_V.Macbeth Cyberspace.discussion News/ Alt.Internet.services Mail/ Use the -la option to view a long listing of information about the files in the current directory. The long listing includes file protections, file size, and date last edited. world% ls -la -rw-rw-r-- 1 freduser freduser 371 Jul 27 1993 .login -rw-rw-r-- 1 freduser freduser 729 Mar 17 23:07 .cshrc -rw-r----- 1 freduser freduser 1558 Apr 17 12:43 sallys.humor -rw-r----- 1 freduser freduser 9441 Mar 24 15:54 wired.info The command ls -asR lists all of your files, including ``.'' files (-a) and their size (-s), in a recursive (-R) listing through all of your subdirectories. This is a useful command for identifying those files that are causing you to exceed your disk quota, and that need to be removed.
world% ls -asR total 967 1 . 1 .login 16 .pinerc 1 News 31 .. 1 .msgsrc 1 .tin 1 humor 2 .cshrc 478 .newsrc 1 Mail 1 mail ./.tin: total 430 1 . 1 .index 414 active 0 posted 1 .. 1 .mailidx 2 attributes 10 tinrc ./mail: total 2 1 . 0 saved-messages 1 .. 0 sent-mail
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