Gupta/Bleuler quantization method
Results of quantization method:
- Four modes of transmission:
- Two transverse waves.
- One longitudinal wave.
- One scalar wave.
- Transverse waves are photons for EM.
- Scalar mode of transmission called a "scalar photon".
- "Supplementary condition" imposed to eliminate scalar and longitudinal photons as real particles, so they are always virtual.
Slide 21 in fact was on fire.